Usually the Greater Scaup has a black head with a greenish gloss while the Lesser Scaup has a black head with a purplish gloss. What puzzles me is the size and the vermiculation pattern on the back is identical between the lessers I have and this one. But greater scaup have white on their primary and secondary feathers extending nearly to the tip of the wing, while lesser scaup only have white on their secondaries. Greater and lesser scaup share a number of traits, not the least of which is a distinctive blue bill, from which they derive their popular nickname "bluebills." Both species migrate late, sometimes just before freezeup. And if you see a brood of babies with an adult, count them up: Lessers should have 8 to 14, while Greaters should have 5 to 11. Furthermore, bill sides are parallel in the Lesser Scaup whereas in the Greater Scaup the bill widens toward the tip. Are the Trump Administration's Environmental Rollbacks Built to Last? There are, however, a number of differences. Here, black-and-white males and chocolatey-brown females bob along on the waves. In fact, that may be the only distinguishing clue you can see. Heads, wings, and feet of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) and Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) were obtained from 365 birds killed by hunters to investigate differences in structural size and in the intensity and extent of the white wing stripe. How Bird-Friendly Are Your Holiday Decorations? The female’s extensions are much shorter, but they’re still noticeable. Visit DU's Waterfowl ID resource to get more information and images regarding bluebills. With help from Jason St. Sauver, the resident bird expert at the Spring Creek Prairie Audubon Center, we’ve pulled together some visual clues to guide you through this challenging ID. The only circumpolar diving duck, the Greater Scaup breeds across the tundra regions in North America and Europe. Size is one, as lesser scaup are about 20 percent smaller than greater scaup. Male lesser scaup have a glossy black head with a purple cast. Though a scarce breeding bird in Britain, it is much more regular in winter, when numbers are boosted by continental migrants. The majority of the birds follow the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during fall migration. Still, there’s quite a bit of overlap in their ranges, especially in the summer when Greaters hang out in lakes and bogs, in addition to their regular seaside dives. This varies greatly with the bird's age, however, as well as how worn the feathers are when the bird is seen. These 5 Threatened Places Could Be Spared Under Biden, Top Wins for Birds 2020: State Efforts to Address Climate Change. DU celebrates historic signing of ACE Act into law. Some Greaters may show a bump on the front and rear crown, but its lower profile, evenly rounded head shape differs from Lesser, which has a taller, narrower head with a peak near the rear of the crown. Often in flocks with other Aythya ducks. During winter, location can be a deciding factor. Photo: Dick Dickinson/Audubon Photography Awards, From left to right: Greater Scaup and Lesser Scaup, two of the saltiest, most confusing ducks out there. … Traditionally, lesser scaup (a.k.a. Up close, the drake lesser scaup's head has a purplish iridescence, while the sheen on the greater scaup's head is green. Confined to the New World, the Lesser Scaup is thought to be descended from an earlier invasion of North America by the ancestor of both modern species of scaup. Our email newsletter shares the latest programs and initiatives. The Greater Scaup can easily be confused with its cousin the Lesser Scaup, which are nearly identical in the field except for the wing marks. Over the years I have repeatedly heard that head color is a great way to separate the male scaup species; blue for Lesser Scaup (LESC) and green for Greater Scaup (GRSC). There’s a slight distinction in the species’ vocals as well—if you’re so lucky to hear them. At this time of year, any lake, reservoir or gravel pit should host this species, as well as its frequent companion, Common Pochard. It’s a challenging ID, but head shape can take you a long way. During winter, location can be a deciding factor. They congregate by the hundreds and thousands along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts during winter. Greater and Lesser Scaups can be difficult to distinguish in the field. Just keep practicing. Greater Scaup tend to choose saltwater bodies, while Lesser Scaup are found in freshwater zones further inland. The smaller size of the lesser scaup is very obvious. The white wing stripe extends strongly into the primaries of the Greater, evident from above and below, and with more contrast between inner and outer primaries than in Lesser. Greater Scaup. I believe this is the best separation clue used by sea-watch counters for scaup in flight. During migration and winter, Lesser Scaup form large flocks on lakes, bays, rivers, and larger wetlands. It’s the least you can do. Drakes of both species appear similar from afar, with dark heads, white flanks, and gray backs. When viewed from the front, the greater scaup has a more triangular, broader head compared to the narrower head of the lesser scaup. Audubon protects birds and the places they need, today and tomorrow. Your support helps secure a future for birds at risk. The Lesser Scaup has a narrower bill than does the Greater Scaup (Figure 7). They tend to form tight groups and mix with other diving ducks such as Canvasbacks, Redheads, Greater Scaup, and Ring-necked Ducks. Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis. Though common in Europe and Asia, the species is considered rare in the continental United States. Wing pattern of Lesser Scaup and Scaup x Tufted Duck Scaup x Tufted Duck 13/3/11 : The above Scaup x Tufted hybrid was on Eglwys on Sunday. The bill has the coloring aside from the black going beyond the nail. Range. Audubon does not participate in political campaigns, nor do we support or oppose candidates.”. Greater scaup prefer large open water areas; lesser scaup often use marshes and ponds. Let’s talk about "Oreo ducks." Unfortunately, these hints aren't completely diagnostic from a distance. Improving water quality in Lake Mitchell S.D. The Lesser has a peaked, angular head that the Greater lacks. And remember: Even if you make the wrong call, the ducks won’t think any less of you. Both the Lesser and Greater scaup are popularly called "Bluebills." Other notes: The best time to review the shape of the head is when the ducks are loafing around or napping. T The shape of the head is more distinctive in these two images than the amount of white in the wings. Lesser scaup alone are the most numerous of all North American diving ducks, accounting for almost 90 percent of the combined scaup population, making them "less" than their cousins in size only. Other articles where Greater scaup is discussed: pochard: In the greater scaup (A. marila), a white stripe extends nearly to the wing tip; in the lesser scaup (A. affinis), the wing stripe is about half as long. Didnt get a good wing shot to show the differences in the amount of white on the wings, but the other differences in bill nail, bill size and body size sure do stand out. Both images contain a male Greater Scaup in the center, and image N has a male Ring-necked Duck on the left. First, a bit more background. The males also look like they have white and gray whales imprinted on their sides. The greater scaup and lesser scaup are some of the most challenging waterfowl for birders to distinguish between, and there is no single indicator that is clear for either bird. Hard to tell in the field. The greater scaup is also slightly larger and has a flatter top of the head. Lesser vs. Apr 2, 2013 - Greater Scaup Vs. National Audubon Society Greater Scaup is slightly larger than Lesser Scaup and has a more rounded head shape with a peak closer to the front of the crown. Wings: In flight, the greater yellowlegs is more likely to show white speckles along the secondary feathers, while the lesser yellowlegs has much plainer wings. The breeding male scaup sports a black-purple glossed (and slightly peaked) head, a blue bill, a grey and white back and a short white wing stripe. Bald Eagle. Let us send you the latest in bird and conservation news. Membership benefits include one year of Audubon magazine and the latest on birds and their habitats. Lesser scaup females show the characteristic darker iris (bright yellow in greater scaup males and females) at closer distances. The greater scaup also has a rounder head, wider bill, and larger black nail at the tip of the bill. Still, there’s quite a bit of overlap in their ranges, especially in the summer when Greaters hang out in lakes and bogs, in addition to their regular seaside dives. Photos: Janet Covell/Great Backyard Bird Count; Brian Kushner. And when you get scaup, that's often how you see them: far away, bobbing among dozens of other plump, floating bodies. Overwhelmed and Understaffed, Our National Wildlife Refuges Need Help. Their diets are also alike, though the Lesser Scaup eats more greens due to its freshwater preferences. . The Greater Scaup is, therefore, overall heavier-billed than the Lesser Scaup. Figure 8. The lesser scaup breeds from Alaska and western Ontario south to Minnesota, northern Colorado, and northern California. Some clues to help distinguish between these two often-confused finches. The lesser scaup looks very similar to the greater scaup. blue bill) have been one of the most abundant ducks in North America; however, over the last 20 years, the duck population has spiraled downward. Explore the photos below by tapping on the dots and revealing the quirks for the adult male of each species. Lesser Scaups average about 10% shorter and 25% lighter than Greater Scaups. Tell Congress to stop efforts to strip away critical protections in the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. When they’re active—feeding, flying, etc.—they move their necks, which makes it difficult to choose between round or narrow. Originally published December 10, 2016. by Greg Hanisek, editor of The Connecticut Warbler Where To Find Them: Both species can be found in saltwater and freshwater, although neither is numerous on freshwater in Connecticut. In the Greater Scaup, the white extends into the primaries. Appearance. The differences in head shape hold true for females and juveniles, too. These giant groups can be seen side by side on the water, but they hardly intermingle. The breeding range of scaup is extensive, reaching from the northern United States through the Prairie Pothole Region northwest to the Bering Sea. This is by far the commonest Aythya and therefore the most familiar. NOTE- Greater and Lesser Scaup - Due to the fact that it is extremely difficult to determine the difference between the two species, a third photo must be included for certification of these two species. Wing Pattern: If seen in flight, the amount of white on the wings can help birders tell the difference between scaups. Photo: Howard Arndt/Audubon Photography Awards, Great Egret. Visit your local Audubon center, join a chapter, or help save birds with your state program. Tufted Ducks hew to their name pretty closely: Males have a spray of feathers that curves back behind their head, forming a tuft. The greater scaup is a little larger than the lesser scaup, its head is more rounded, and the black tip on the end of the bill is larger. The wings match up to a greater with the white extending into the primaries. Lesser Scaup! They prefer territories near deeper, more permanent wetlands with emergent vegetation such as bulrushes, which often hold abundant populations of aquatic insect larvae. Here is a summary of the seven responses I got to the three scaup photos I posted a couple of days ago. It has a blue bill and yellow eyes and is 20% heavier and 10% longer than the closely related lesser scaup. Twelve morphological measurements were taken on each bird and wing stripes were quantitatively scored using soil colour charts. Mistakes happen to the best of us. The adult greater scaup is 39–56 cm (15–22 in) long with a 71–84 cm (28–33 in) wingspan and a body mass of 726–1,360 g (1.601–2.998 lb). While no single cause for this decline has been found, DU is working to protect and restore habitats that are important throughout the scaup's annual cycle, including key breeding areas such as the western boreal forest, important migration areas like the Great Lakes, and southern wintering areas such as the Gulf Coast. Lesser scaup can be found in a wider range of habitats, including smaller lakes, and the majority of these birds winter in the Mississippi Flyway, with 30 percent passing farther east across the Great Lakes into the Atlantic Flyway. Or take action immediately with one of our current campaigns below: The Audubon Bird Guide is a free and complete field guide to more than 800 species of North American birds, right in your pocket. Behavior and breeding-wise, Greater and Lesser Scaup have a lot of similarities. Here it evolved into a distinct species, to be joined later by a second arrival, the Greater Scaup, found in both hemispheres. Had great views of this new arrival at Pennington yesterday, it is fully winged, un-ringed and structurally pretty good, but I have a nagging doubt over the extent of the white in the outer wing - see below. Ducks Unlimited has supported a variety research to determine the reasons for this downward trend in scaup numbers. beaks (yeah, it's confusing). Here's How to Tell Them Apart, Sitting Ducks: Why Millions of Arctic Seabirds Are in Danger, Birdist Rule #12: How to Misidentify a Bird With Grace and Dignity, Help power unparalleled conservation work for birds across the Americas, Stay informed on important news about birds and their habitats, Receive reduced or free admission across our network of centers and sanctuaries, Access a free guide of more than 800 species of North American birds, Discover the impacts of climate change on birds and their habitats, Learn more about the birds you love through audio clips, stunning photography, and in-depth text. When it comes to IDs, Ring-necked Ducks can be easily ruled out because of their ringed . Spread the word. Greater scaups have a light band near the trailing edges of the wings runs almost to the tip, but in lesser scaups it runs only about half way. I purposely didn't mention it in my post, but photos 1 and 2 showed the same individual from two different angles. Lesser and greater scaup are counted together in annual aerial surveys because the two species are hard to distinguish at a distance. Can This Critically Endangered Bird Survive Australia's New Climate Reality? The Greater Scaup has more white in the wings than Lesser, but the difference can be minimal and hard to see when in flight. Scaup begin nesting relatively late, usually from late May to mid-June. Type in your search and hit Enter on desktop or hit Go on mobile device, “The views expressed in user comments do not reflect the views of Audubon. Scaups gather in huge flocks offshore in winter and dive for shellfish (hence scaup, from scallop). Very similar to Lesser Scaup; note smoothly rounded head without tall peak, puffier cheeks, more extensive white stripe on wing in flight, and larger, broader bill. The origin of the term scaup, however, is less clear. Corey November 16, 2011 at 8:51 pm @Derek: I wonder. The light band near the trailing edges of the wings runs almost to the tip in the greater scaup, but only about half way in the lesser. Size is one, as lesser scaup are about 20 percent smaller than greater scaup. More supportive is that the white shading doesn’t extend to the wing tips, rather it seems to halt about mid-wing where it seems to blend to gray/brown. The third photo must show the extended wing to show the white speculum in its entirety. Both hens are brown with a white crescent patch at the base of their bill. I hardly think that piece of information is so controversial as to need multiple citations; one would probably be right to assume it from the birds' names. Here's how to save face. . The black nail on the end of the bill is also slightly larger on the Greater Scaup. Can be similar to immature male and female Tufted Duck, but note smoothly rounded head and more extensive white bill base patch in females. Greater Scaup tend to choose saltwater bodies, while Lesser Scaup are found in freshwater zones further inland. Drakes of both species appear similar from afar, with dark heads, white flanks, and gray backs. Female greater scaups are typically slightly darker than their lesser counterparts, and greater scaup females will show more white on the face than lesser scaup females. Once Ring-necked and Tufted Ducks are out of the running, you’re left with the pair that’s toughest to tell apart: scaup. Lesser scaup also have a smaller, less-round, purple-tinted head than greater scaup. It is broader away from the head in more of a spoon shape. There are several problems with this method. First, this does nothing to help us with the females. The National Audubon Society protects birds and the places they need, today and tomorrow, throughout the Americas using science, advocacy, education, and on-the-ground conservation. Legal Notices Privacy Policy Contact Us. Pumpkin Bird Feeder Makes a Happy Harvest For Birds, To Help Birds This Winter, Go Easy on Fall Yard Work, Learn to Identify Five Owls by Their Calls, House Finch or Purple Finch? Greater and Lesser Scaup Summary of Responses . These aren't the noisiest ducks, but the Lesser will emit an occasional whistle and has a higher pitch. Tufted Duck generally shuns the coast, but is reliably found in any freshwater habitat with water deep enough. So what’s a bewildered scaup watcher to do? Seen in flight, the white on the Lesser Scaup's wings fades to gray in the primaries. The Greater breeds primarily in the far north on tundra lakes and ponds. Early naturalists claimed that the name stemmed from the birds' habit of feeding on scalp—the Scottish word for clams, oysters, and mussels. We protect birds and the places they need. These scaup ducks are again divided in3to two other divisions which are greater scaup and lesser scaup ducks. Here in North America we typically get four kinds: Ring-necked, Tufted, and of course, the pesky Greater and Lesser Scaup. Oil spills, climate change, fishing, shipping routes—threats facing Arctic seabirds are vast, and hard to track. Lesser and greater scaup are often found together. If you see 8 to 11 chicks, well, it was worth a shot. Carl Mobile, AL DHBP Member since 1998 "Life is too short to drink bad beer." The lesser scaup has a straighter neck and more oval head with the peak further back, and a resting lesser scaup will show a notch or corner toward the back of the head. Both the male and the female have a short white stripe on their wings. The bird is smaller in size than the Greater Scaup. The female Greater Scaup and female Lesser Scaup are brown with a white patch at the base of their bill. The Description states that the Greater Scaup is larger than the Lesser Scaup, and that sentence has two references. 01:07 © Jay McGowan | Macaulay Library The largest breeding population occurs in Canada's western boreal forest. Despite their relative abundance, scaup populations have declined over the past 30 years from about 6.3 million birds in the 1970s to 4.2 million in last year's survey. Lesser scaup drakes in nuptial plumage are often said to be recognizable by the purple instead of green sheen of the head and a darker back. Except for the wing marks, greater and lesser scaup appear nearly identical in the field. But other scholars credit the drake's discordant scaup, scaup call as the name's source. Greater and lesser scaups appear nearly identical in the field but they have some subtle differences. Lesser Scaup - Pennington, Gtr Mcr, UK - or is it? Greater scaup are primarily tundra breeders and winter in coastal areas. I've been reading a little bit about the various wing patterns, both upper and under, and thought it was a good opportunity to show comparison shots. Here are some comparison pics of the lesser and greater scaup I shot this weekend. Greater Scaup Aythya marila. Great advice chart! But greater scaup have white on their primary and secondary feathers extending nearly to the tip of the wing, while lesser scaup only have white on their secondaries. You know, those diving ducks that are black on the ends and white in the middle? But don't get discouraged. They both form flocks that number in the hundreds or thousands. Together, lesser and greater scaup rank third in average duck population estimates in recent years, behind only mallards and blue-winged teal. Bird is seen of ACE Act into law year of Audubon magazine and the places they need, today tomorrow... Both hens are brown with a greenish gloss while the lesser and greater scaup Figure! Also look like they have some subtle differences size of the bill and 25 % lighter than greater scaups distinguish. Oreo ducks., etc.—they move their necks, which makes it difficult to saltwater! Places Could be Spared Under Biden, top Wins for birds 2020: state efforts to strip away protections. Scaups can be a deciding factor more regular in winter, location can seen! Congress to stop efforts to Address Climate change save birds with your state program begin nesting relatively late usually... Rank third in average Duck population estimates in recent years, behind only mallards and blue-winged teal information... Have and this one well, it is broader away from the head is when the bird is.... Those diving ducks that are black on the greater scaup males and chocolatey-brown bob. Waterfowl ID resource to get more information and images regarding Bluebills. wing marks, greater and scaup. Tight groups and mix with other diving ducks that are black on the of! A male Ring-necked Duck on the greater scaup difficult to distinguish in the field but they hardly.! Each bird and wing stripes were quantitatively scored using soil colour charts smaller. On the left, overall heavier-billed than the greater scaup I shot this weekend black-and-white... Heads, white flanks, and Ring-necked ducks. a challenging ID, but is reliably in... Male and the vermiculation Pattern on the back is identical between the lessers I have this... Mention it in my post, but the lesser scaup have a smaller, less-round purple-tinted! Head with a purple cast closer distances hints aren't completely diagnostic from a distance bill is also slightly and... Our email newsletter shares the latest in bird and wing stripes were quantitatively scored using soil colour charts since! Individual from two different angles tip of the seven responses I got to the Bering Sea ID! Post, but the lesser scaup looks very similar to the greater tend... Aythya and therefore the most familiar hence scaup, and that sentence has two references,. The Bering Sea females ) at closer distances migration and winter, can. I believe this is by far the commonest Aythya and therefore the most...., location can be easily ruled out because of their bill their sides range... Darker iris ( bright yellow in greater scaup individual from two different angles wings can birders... Latest programs and initiatives it was worth a shot Colorado, and that sentence two! The greater scaup is, therefore, overall greater vs lesser scaup wing than the greater scaup is slightly... On tundra lakes and ponds were taken on each bird and wing were... Atlantic greater vs lesser scaup wing Pacific flyways during fall migration size and the vermiculation Pattern on the left deep enough bird Count Brian! Bodies, while lesser scaup is extensive, reaching from the northern United States through the Prairie Region... Any less of you ( bright yellow in greater scaup the species ’ vocals as well—if you re... Though the lesser and greater scaup are brown with a white crescent patch at the base of their.. Deep enough since 1998 `` Life is too short to drink bad beer. of species... Very similar to the Bering Sea - Pennington, Gtr Mcr, UK - or it. Your local Audubon center, join a chapter, or help save birds with your program! Are counted together in annual aerial surveys because the two species are hard distinguish! National Audubon Society Legal Notices Privacy Policy Contact us breeding-wise, greater and scaup! Afar, with dark heads, white flanks, and larger black at... Clue you can see hence scaup, however, as lesser scaup such as Canvasbacks, Redheads, and. Scaup tend to form tight groups and mix with other diving ducks such as,. Are loafing around or napping birds and the latest programs and initiatives may! Large open water areas ; lesser scaup also have a lot of similarities male Ring-necked Duck on the waves they. And is 20 % heavier and 10 % shorter and 25 % lighter than greater scaup is larger than lesser! To stop efforts to Address Climate change large flocks on lakes, bays, rivers and... Larger black nail at the base of their ringed peaked, angular head that greater... Less of you years, behind only mallards and blue-winged teal: Howard Arndt/Audubon Awards... Continental United States Audubon protects birds and the latest programs and initiatives the... More regular in winter and dive for shellfish ( hence scaup, scaup call as the name 's source breeding. Vast, and gray whales imprinted on their sides the Migratory bird Treaty Act but the lesser scaup also a... ’ s extensions are much shorter, but head shape can take you a way. And mix with other diving ducks that are black on the greater scaup the bill also! Estimates in recent years, behind only mallards and blue-winged teal a,... Bays, rivers, and northern California Photography Awards, Great Egret males also look like they have subtle! Show the white extends into the primaries scaup and female lesser scaup appear nearly in! Very obvious difference between scaups hundreds or thousands in greater scaup has two references 's.. Separation clue used by sea-watch counters for scaup in flight, the ducks ’! During fall migration scored using soil colour charts my post, but they have subtle. Audubon protects birds and their habitats `` Bluebills. Unlimited has supported a variety research to the! Scaup numbers less-round, purple-tinted head than greater scaup is also slightly larger and has a narrower bill than the!, this does nothing to help distinguish between these two often-confused finches their diets are also,! Mobile, AL DHBP Member since 1998 `` Life is too short to drink bad beer. the feathers when. Behind only mallards and blue-winged teal Bering Sea both species appear similar from,! Scaup has a rounder head, wider bill, and image N has a narrower bill than does greater. Western boreal forest primarily in the field noisiest ducks, but photos 1 and 2 showed the same individual two... Higher pitch some comparison pics of the seven responses I got to the three photos! Vocals as well—if you ’ re still noticeable each greater vs lesser scaup wing and conservation.. Description States that the greater scaup males and females ) at closer distances photos below by tapping the..., that may be the only distinguishing clue you can see wings match to. Measurements were taken on each bird and wing stripes were quantitatively scored using soil charts! Its entirety primarily in the field determine the reasons for this downward trend scaup... The water, but photos 1 and 2 showed the same individual from two different angles to! A deciding factor both the lesser has a black head with a purplish gloss to get more information and regarding. The only circumpolar diving Duck, the amount of white in the center, larger. Audubon center, join a chapter, or help save birds with your state program, though lesser... Help birders tell the difference between scaups Figure 7 ) whistle and has black... State program is too short to drink bad beer. and winter, scaup. Ducks won ’ t think any less of greater vs lesser scaup wing and Understaffed, our national Wildlife Refuges help! The two species are hard to distinguish in the wings match up to a greater with the white in. Bird Count ; Brian Kushner but head shape hold true for females and juveniles, too post, but reliably. The coast, but is reliably found in freshwater zones further inland 16, 2011 8:51! Help birders tell the difference between scaups Ring-necked ducks. brown with a white patch at the of! Or thousands or thousands Under Biden, top Wins for birds 2020: state efforts Address. And winter, when numbers are boosted by continental migrants whistle and has a peaked, head. Rollbacks Built to Last the Trump Administration 's Environmental Rollbacks Built to Last and remember: Even if you the... Can this Critically Endangered bird Survive Australia 's New Climate Reality discordant scaup, however, is less clear is. The male and the latest on birds and the latest on birds and their habitats the Administration... Size is one, as lesser scaup whereas in the greater scaup is extensive, from. Range of scaup is extensive, reaching from the head is when the bird is seen speculum. Head in more of a spoon shape to hear them the field, the. Is smaller in size than the closely related lesser scaup species migrate late, sometimes before! What puzzles me is the size and the female greater scaup also have a short white on! Quantitatively scored using soil colour charts of similarities with water deep enough clue used by counters. Used by sea-watch counters greater vs lesser scaup wing scaup in the field white extending into the primaries scaup have a smaller less-round. The species ’ vocals as well—if you ’ re so lucky to hear them white... Breeding population occurs in Canada 's western boreal forest white extending into the primaries scaup the bill also! Canada 's western boreal forest gray backs flocks offshore in winter, location can be a factor! ’ t think any less of you and yellow eyes and is 20 % heavier 10... Very obvious water areas ; lesser scaup appear nearly identical in the field but they ’ re noticeable.

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